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Children's Act, 2005 (Act No. 38 of 2005)

Regulations

General Regulations Regarding Children, 2010

Annexure B : National Norms and Standards (Sections 79;94;106;147;194 and 216 of the Act)

Part I : National Norms and Standards for Partial Care

 

For the purposes of section 79(2) of the Act, the following are national norms and standards for partial care:

 

(1) A safe environment for children

 

(a) Children must experience safety and feel cared for whilst at the partial care facility.
(b) Premises inside and outside must be safe, clean and well-maintained.
(c) Equipment used must be safe, clean and well-maintained.
(d) There must be adult supervision at all times.
(e) The structure must be safe and weatherproof.
(f) Floors must be covered in washable and easy to clean material that is suitable for children to play and sleep on and walls must be safe and easy to clean.
(g) All reasonable precautions must be taken to protect children and staff from the risk of fire, accidents or other hazards.
(h) Safety measures must be undertaken when transporting children. Such safety measures include ensuring that-
(i) transport operators transporting children are registered, suitably trained, screened against Part B of the Child Protection Register and possess the necessary licences and permits as prescribed by the National Land Transport Transition Act, 2000 (Act No. 22 of 2000), and other relevant national transport policies and regulations determined by the Department of Transport;
(ii) the requirements published by the Minister of Transport periodically in terms of the National Land Transport Transition Act, 2000 are adhered to;
(iii) transport is appropriate to the ages of children transported and that it is accessible and suitable to children with disabilities and other special needs;
(iv) transport providers comply with safety measures regulated by the Department of Transport, including adherence to speed limits, and that all passengers are seated regardless of the transport mode used;
(v) vehicles used to transport children are safe and have the necessary safety characteristics, such as windows and doors opening instructions, safety equipment and appropriate speed devices;
(vi) children are not transported in open vehicles;
(vii) there is an adult supervisor in a vehicle transporting children under the age of nine years; and
(viii) there is no overloading of children in vehicles.

 

(2) Proper care for sick children or children who become ill

 

(a) Staff must have the ability to identify children who are ill and be able to refer them for appropriate health services.
(b) Policies and procedures relating to the health care of children whilst at the partial care facility must be in place. Such policies and procedures must cover the following:
(i) Criteria for identifying ill children;
(ii) safe keeping of all medication at a partial care facility;
(iii) procedures for dealing with children who are ill; and
(iv) guidelines for preventing the spread of diseases at the partial care facility.
(c) The following procedure regarding children who are ill must be adhered to:
(i) After Identifying children who are ill, the illness or problem must be reported to the parent(s), care-giver or family as soon as possible;
(ii) the child must be removed from other children to a safe place or room designed to care for ill children;
(iii) any child assessed to have an infectious disease (measles, chickenpox, etc) must be immediately isolated from other children and referred to the nearest hospital or clinic for further assessment and treatment;
(iv) if a child is already on prescribed medication, that child must receive the medication as prescribed and as advised by the parents; and
(v) in cases of emergency, the child must be taken to the nearest hospital or clinic for treatment and appropriate referral.
(d) The following medical records must be kept:
(i) up-to date records of each child's medical history;
(ii) records of each child's immunisation programme and Vitamin A schedule; and
(iii) records of health incidents and accidents occurring at the facility.
(e) Every partial care facility must have a first-aid kit.

 

(3) Adequate space and ventilation

 

(a) The partial care facility must have adequate ventilation and sufficient light.
(b) Space for different activities and functions must be clearly demarcated.
(c) Where applicable, new buildings and alterations to buildings must comply with the building standards as set out by the National Building Regulations and Building Standard Act, 1997 (Act No. 103 of 1997).

 

(4) Safe drinking water

 

(a) Safe and clean drinking water must always be available.
(b) Where water is not from a piped source, it must be treated and made safe using approved national health guidelines for the treatment of water by adding one teaspoon of bleach to 25 litres of water.
(c) All water containers must be covered at all times.

 

(5) Hygienic and adequate toilet facilities

 

(a) Partial care facilities catering for toddlers must have potties, toilets and washbasins.
(b) Toilet and hand washing facilities must be reachable for children over the age of three years.
(c) For children up to the age of three years-
(i) there must be appropriate toilets;
(ii) where there are no sewerage or ablution facilities, potties must be made available;
(iii) every child under the age of three years must have his or her own potty;
(iv) waste from potties must be disposed of hygienically;
(v) potties must be cleaned after use and disinfected in a properly demarcated area; and
(vi) there must be a clearly demarcated nappy changing area with a surface that can be easily cleaned. This area must be situated away from the food preparation area.
(d) For children between the ages of three and six years-
(i) where sewerage systems are available, there must be one toilet and one hand washing basin for every 20 children;
(ii) where no sewerage facilities are available, an appropriate toilet must be available at the partial care facility or immediately adjacent to the partial care facility;
(iii) where no running water is available, there must be a minimum of 25 Iitres of drinkable water supplied on a daily basis;
(iv) where no washbasins are available, one suitable container for every 20 children must be made available, provided that such container is cleaned and changed regularly and closed; and
(v) all toilets must be safe and hygienic.
(e) For children of six years and older, there must be-
(i) hygienic and safe toilets; and
(ii) one toilet and one hand washing basin for every 20 children.
(f) There must be adult supervision at all times when children use the toilet.
(g) Where applicable the local authority regulations and by-laws in respect of physical characteristics of building and health requirements must be adhered to.

 

(6) Safe storage of anything that may be harmful to children

 

(a) Medicine, cleaning substances and any dangerous substances must be kept out of reach of children.
(b) Medicine and dangerous substances must be kept in separate locked or childproof cupboards.
(c) Dangerous objects, materials, sharp instruments and utensils must be kept out of reach of children.
(d) Dangerous substances may not be used in the vicinity of children.
(e) Electrical plugs must be covered.
(f) Paraffin, gas and other electric appliances must be kept out of reach of children.
(g) Cleaning agents must be kept in clearly marked containers and out of reach of children.

 

(7) Access to refuse disposal services or other adequate means of disposal of refuse generated at the partial care facility

 

(a) Where possible, refuse must be disposed of according to municipality
(b) regulations.
(c) Waste disposal methods must be safe and covered.
(d) Waste must be kept out of reach of children.
(e) Waste disposal areas must be disinfected regularly.

 

(8) A hygienic area for the preparation of food for children

 

(a) There must be a separate, clean and safe area for the preparation of food as well as for cleaning up after food preparation.
(b) There must be a separate clean and safe area for serving food to the children.
(c) There must be cooling facilities for storage of perishable food.
(d) The food preparation area must be clearly marked and out of reach of children.
(e) There must be a sufficient supply of clean water as well as cleaning agents.
(f) There must be sealed containers to store all prepared food before serving such food.

 

(9) Measures for the separation of children of different age groups

 

(a) Where possible, children must be separated into the following age categories in separate rooms or places to ensure their development:
(i) Children under the age of 18 months;
(ii) children between the ages of 18 and 36 months;
(iii) children between the ages of three and four years; and
(iv) children between the ages of four and six years.
(b) Where a partial care facility provides after care facilities to children of school going age, these children must be kept separate from the children in the abovementioned age groups in order to ensure that they are able to rest and complete their homework upon their return from school.
(c) Where more than 50 children are enrolled for a full day at a partial care facility, there must be a separate room or place to be used as an office and as a sickbay.

 

(10) The drawing up of action plans for emergencies

 

(a) Reasonable precautions to protect children from risk of fire, accidents and other hazards must be taken.
(b) Policies and procedures for dealing with structural and environmental emergencies and disasters must be in place.
(c) Emergency procedures with relevant contact details must be visibly displayed.
(d) Emergency plans must include evacuation procedures.
(e) Emergency plans must be up-to-date, regularly tested and reviewed.
(f) Staff must be trained in dealing with emergencies.

(g)        Children must be made aware of emergency procedures.

 

(11) The drawing up of policies and procedures regarding health care at the partial care facility

 

Policies must—

(a) include procedures to deal with infectious diseases at the partial care facility;
(b) include procedures for dealing with the medical needs of sick children and of children with chronic illnesses;
(c) ensure that there are standards relating to cleanliness and hygiene at the partial care facility;
(d) ensure that there is an adequate supply of cleaning agents and towels at the partial care facility;
(e) provide for the training of staff in first aid;
(f) include record keeping and registers pertaining to storage and use of medicines at the partial care facility;
(g) promote confidentiality when dealing with health related information;
(h) encourage staff to take care of their health, undergo regular medical check-ups, and must include procedures to deal with contagious diseases contracted by staff in order to prevent transmission to children; and
(i) promote ongoing staff training and development on keeping a healthy environment, identifying illnesses, preventing the spread of diseases and infectious diseases as well as promoting universal health precaution.