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Criminal Procedure Act, 1977 (Act No. 51 of 1977)

Chapter 22 : Conduct of Proceedings

161. Witness to testify viva voce


(1) A witness at criminal proceedings shall, except where this Act or any other law expressly provides otherwise, give his evidence viva voce.


(2) In this section the expression "viva voce" shall, in the case of a deaf and dumb witness, be deemed to include gesture-language and, in the case of a witness under the age of eighteen years, be deemed to include demonstrations, gestures or any other form of non-verbal expression.

[Section 161(2) substituted by section 1 of Act No. 135 of 1991]